Champion HHC Health Information Library
We have thousands of patient health information articles gathered here. All articles are easy to read, authoritatively sourced, and constantly updated. Please visit our website at any time to search for information that interests you.
Urinary incontinence (UI) is loss of bladder control. Symptoms can range from mild leaking to uncontrollable wetting. It can happen to anyone, but it becomes more common with age. Women experience UI twice as often as men.
Most bladder control problems happen when muscles are too weak or too active. If the muscles that keep your bladder closed are weak, you may have accidents when you sneeze, laugh or lift a heavy object. This is stress incontinence. If bladder muscles become too active, you may feel a strong urge to go to the bathroom when you have little urine in your bladder. This is urge incontinence or overactive bladder. There are other causes of incontinence, such as prostate problems and nerve damage.
Treatment depends on the type of problem you have and what best fits your lifestyle. It may include simple exercises, medicines, special devices or procedures prescribed by your doctor, or surgery.
NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases
Urine and Urination
Your kidneys make urine by filtering wastes and extra water from your blood. The waste is called urea. Your blood carries it to the kidneys. From the kidneys, urine travels down two thin tubes called ureters to the bladder. The bladder stores urine until you are ready to urinate. It swells into a round shape when it is full and gets smaller when empty. If your urinary system is healthy, your bladder can hold up to 16 ounces (2 cups) of urine comfortably for 2 to 5 hours.
You may have problems with urination if you have
- Kidney failure
- Urinary tract infections
- An enlarged prostate
- Bladder control problems like incontinence, overactive bladder, or interstitial cystitis
- A blockage that prevents you from emptying your bladder
Some conditions may also cause you to have blood or protein in your urine. If you have a urinary problem, see your health care provider. Urinalysis and other urine tests can help to diagnose the problem. Treatment depends on the cause.
NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases
Usher syndrome is an inherited disease that causes serious hearing loss and retinitis pigmentosa, an eye disorder that causes your vision to get worse over time. It is the most common condition that affects both hearing and vision.
There are three types of Usher syndrome:
- People with type I are deaf from birth and have severe balance problems from a young age. Vision problems usually start by age 10 and lead to blindness.
- People with type II have moderate to severe hearing loss and normal balance. Vision problems start in the early teens and get worse more slowly than in type I.
- People with type III are born with normal hearing and near-normal balance but develop vision problems and then hearing loss.
There is no cure. Tools such as hearing aids or cochlear implants can help some people. Training such as Braille instruction, low-vision services, or auditory training can also help.
NIH: National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders
What are vaccines?
Vaccines play an important role in keeping us healthy. They protect us from serious and sometimes deadly diseases. Vaccines are injections (shots), liquids, pills, or nasal sprays that you take to teach your body's immune system to recognize and defend against harmful germs. The germs could be viruses or bacteria.
Vaccines contain germs (or parts of germs) that cause disease. The germs have been killed or weakened enough that they won't make you sick. But they will spark an immune response, which helps your body fight off the germs. Your immune system will also remember the germ and attack it if that germ ever invades again. This protection against a certain disease is called immunity.
Since these diseases can be very serious, it is safer to get immunity from a vaccine than from getting sick with the disease.Do vaccines cause side effects?
As with medicines, any vaccine can cause side effects. Most of the time the side effects are minor, such as a sore arm, fatigue, or mild fever. They usually go away within a few days. These common side effects are often a sign that your body is starting to build immunity against a disease.
Serious side effects from vaccines can happen, but they are very rare. These side effects could include a severe allergic reaction. Other possible side effects can be different for each vaccine. Talk with your health care provider if you're concerned about your health after getting vaccinated.
Some people worry that childhood vaccines could cause autism spectrum disorder (ASD). But many scientific studies have looked at this and have found no link between vaccines and ASD.How are vaccines tested for safety?
Every vaccine that is approved in the United States goes through extensive safety testing. It starts with testing and evaluation of the vaccine before it's approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). This process can often take several years.
- First, the vaccine is tested in labs. Based on those tests, the FDA decides whether to test the vaccine with people.
- Testing with people is done through clinical trials. In these trials, the vaccines are tested on volunteers. Clinical trials usually start with 20 to 100 volunteers, but eventually include thousands of volunteers.
- The clinical trials have three phases. The trials are looking for the answer to important questions such as
- Is the vaccine safe?
- What dose (amount) works best?
- How does the immune system react to it?
- How effective is it?
- During the process, the FDA works closely with the company who makes the vaccine to evaluate the vaccine's safety and effectiveness. If the vaccine is found to be safe and effective, it will be approved and licensed by the FDA.
- After a vaccine is licensed, experts may consider adding it to the recommended immunization schedule. The immunization schedule is from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). It lists which vaccines are recommended for different groups of people. They list which age groups should get which vaccines, how many doses they need, and when they should get them.
Testing and monitoring continue after the vaccine is approved:
- The company making the vaccines tests every batch of vaccines for quality and safety. The FDA reviews the results of these tests. It also inspects the factories where the vaccine is made. This helps make sure the vaccines meet standards for quality and safety.
- The FDA, CDC, and other federal agencies continue to monitor its safety, to watch for possible side effects. They have systems to track any safety issues with the vaccines.
These high safety standards and testing help to make sure that vaccines in the United States are safe. Vaccines help protect against serious, even deadly, diseases. They not only protect you, but also help to keep these diseases from spreading to others.